What are Challenges to India’s defence Modernisation ?

Due to technological advances in India’s immediate vicinity, the country has had to keep a close eye on its defence policies. It was concluded that India’s defence forces need to be modernised in order to improve their operational performance.

To counter the security threats posed by neighbouring countries, the Indian government launched core programmes such as “Made in India.”. Indian defence forces have evolved technologically over time to improve their military capability.

They have technologically advanced their fighting weapons in order to gain an advantage over their adversary. Due to the changing security climate and the rapid growth of new defence hardware, India’s defence needs will increase over time. 

Defence Research and Development organization (DRDO) has contributed its efforts to upgrade all these three forces. Modernization of the defence forces has encouraged youth to join these forces and render their valuable services to the nation. Selection to defence starts with qualifying exams like CDS, NDA, AFCAT etc.

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There are few challenges that defence forces face while modernising itself and that are stated below:

Indian defence forces are aspiring great power, to gain self-sufficiency and autarky to address its national security concerns.

Defence preparedness and India’s national security concern

Till date, India has faced a number of complex challenges that start from nuclear to sub-conventional spectrum of conflict. Some issues like unresolved territorial conflicts with Pakistan and China, Insurrections in Jammu and Kashmir and North-eastern states. With the rise in jeopardy of left wing extremism and urban terrorism has intensified India’s security environment. India has spent a large portion of its budget on upgrading its combating capabilities. 

India needs to cope up with the updated technology to predominate its enemy. But, the Defence industry has failed to manage the requirements of the defence forces. India is counted among largest importers in the world due to its incapability in indigenous production of technology. 

Indian armed forces lack scientific armed weapons, the submarine fleet of the Naval force has fallen off to 40% of the minimum requirement. Fighter Squadrons are available at 60% of the mandatory needs. This made the case for slow growth of the defence forces of India. Thus, India needs to build capacity for producing technically updated armed weapons. 

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Articulating Indian Defence Forces requirements

India requires capable defence weapons to deter noxious hostility offered by its two primary adversaries i.e. Pakistan and China. Therefore, India’s defence requirements are based on capabilities that can combat biggest threats. Therefore, India needs to build comprehensive national capability to overcome any threat that emanates from Pakistan and China. 

Major issues in modernization

As India imports sophisticated weapons from foreign countries to enhance its operational efficiency. The defence forces are likely to negatively affect India’s aspiration of becoming a great power.

The challenges faced by the Indian defence forces in terms of procuring and producing technically advanced weapons to fulfil the requirements of the defence forces need critical examination. Some of the issues in modernization of the defence forces are:

National Security Strategy and Decision Making

However, because of the bureaucratic nature of the decision-making process in India, decision-making in national security and strategic matters is expected to be sluggish and complex, affecting India’s ability to manufacture and procure arms on time, which, in turn, affects India’s defence preparedness.

The Armed Forces now lack critical war-fighting capabilities, which has serious consequences for India’s national security as compared to current requirements.

Acquisition And Offset Techniques

Increased defence spending is possible not only as a result of tensions in the immediate international security climate, but also as a result of the country’s steady economic development over the years, which has provided it with a stable economic foundation. This should play a significant role in growing India’s demand for defence offsets, providing the country with the financial support it needs to encourage indigenous defence development.

For the first time since its establishment in 2002, the Ministry of Defence (MOD) published an unfinished version of DPP 2016, which saw the launch of a new category named ‘Buy (Indian Designed, Created, and Manufactured)’ or Buy (IDDM).

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Conclusion

To meet the complex security threats that arise in an increasingly uncertain neighbourhood and a complex strategic regional security climate, each of the Indian Armed Forces’ services requires urgent modernization. The Indian Army, which has one of the world’s biggest standing armies, has arms and vehicles that are on the verge of obsolescence and must be replaced.


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