How Do CNC Lathe Machines Work?The primary concepts for all CNC Lathe machines are more or less similar, but various unique aspects make them different from each other. A menu-like user interface is used to control the lathe machines over the computer. All the functions are automated and are supervised by an operator. CNC lathe machines spiral pieces of metal at a breakneck pace and carve off strips of the metal with an immovable cutting tool. The finished products achieved with CNC lathe machines are very accurate in terms of shape and texture. The machine works in complete sync with various mechanisms and drives segments that stir and regulate the axes to carry out the programmed actions. Distinct Parts and Components of CNC Lathe Machines The main configuration of CNC lathe machines comprises various parts and components that facilitate synchronized actions. The components on a CNC lathe machine may vary based on the configuration of the machines. However, these are a few of many essential components that are found on a CNC lathe machine:
- Main Spindle: The spindle drive system and the spindle assembly make the main spindle of a CNC lathe machine. This part of the machine includes gears, motors, and the chuck.
- Headstock: The headstock of a CNC lathe machine is responsible for holding the main spindle where the chuck is firmly fixed. It comprises three main parts known as gear shifts, spindle, and the speed change mechanism. When the machines are operating, the headstock takes the load of a lot of vibrations and resistance.
- Tailstock: The tailstock is a movable part of the CNC lathe machine and lies opposite to a spindle. This part can be changed to suit the requirement of the finished product. It is made up of a barrel that can move either backward or forward. We can even support the material using this barrel.
- Saddle: The is an H-shaped component, and its job is to help the cross slide move forward and backward. It is usually located over the carriage of the CNC lathe machine.
- Bed: The bed is one of the essential components of a CNC lathe machine. This part does not move very often and is usually settled in a particular point where it can support the other parts of the machine, such as carriage, headstock, tailstock, and other parts.
- Carriage: The carriage plays a significant role in the functioning of a CNC lathe machine as it enables the mounting of the tool post. It consists of top glide, saddle, traverse, and composite support. Its only range of motion is that it rotates in the left and right direction.
Variants in CNC lathe machinesIn general, CNC lathe machines come in two different variants. These are the CNC vertical lathe machine and the CNC horizontal lathe machine.
- CNC Vertical Lathe Machine: This machine cuts the angles and positions that are usually difficult to reach. It does so by rotating in a perpendicular position, similar to how a potter operates a pottery wheel. Vertical lathe machines help handle large and heavy materials.
- CNC Horizontal Lathe Machine: This machine is very commonly used in workshops. It uses tools to give the material the required shape and size. It does so by rotating the piece of metal in a circular motion. These machines generally have more significant footprints than the vertical machine.